With countable nouns (e.g. apples, people, cities) we use:
a/an - Can I borrow a pen please?
the - The town is empty.
some - Did you put some nuts in the cake?
any - Are there any bananas in the fridge?
many - We had many choices to choose from.
a few - There were quite a few people on the bus today.
With uncountable nouns (e.g. traffic, information, weather) we use:
some - Would you like some water?
any - Is there any furniture in his flat?
much - I don't have much money.
little - I always have a little milk in my tea.
the - I love looking at the moon.